Nir’s Note: This guest post is by Erik Johnson. Erik applies behavioral design principles on The Behavioral Insights Team at Morningstar.
Six years ago, I was in a position that many people early in their careers find themselves in: I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life. My first job out of college took good care of me and was interesting enough, but I knew it wasn’t the career I wanted in the long term. I needed something else, so I started reading and exploring what was out there. One day, as I was reading a blog post on psychology, I discovered a book called Nudge that caught my eye. I bought it immediately and devoured it. The book opened a whole new realm of psychology and economic thinking that I had no idea existed me in a way nothing else had. This was what I was looking for in my search.
Fast forward to the present day and I’ve fully made the transition. I found my dream job in the field working on Morningstar’s Behavioral Insights Team, where we apply behavioral science research and methods to help people with their finances. It’s amazing and I’m constantly energized by not only the work we do, but also the greater potential in this field.
Whether called behavioral design, product psychology, or behavioral science, there’s never been this level of interest, excitement, or opportunities to understand the quirks of the human mind and use this knowledge to change how people live. From the highest levels of government to the C-suite, behavioral science is being applied in the real world and tackling big problems.
Despite this level of interest, the path to doing this work can be quite ambiguous. For those who read books like Nudge and are inspired to put Choice Architecture into practice much like I was, it’s unclear what they should do next.
It took me more than five years to discover that path and successfully navigate it. It was a winding road with more than a few dead ends along the way and if I was starting over, I would do much of it differently. Being in the incredibly fortunate position to do this work now, I regularly receive questions from others with this passion that find themselves in the same place I was. After thinking through their questions and providing my input, I’ve come up with some advice.
In this post, I’ll outline what I wish I could have told myself six years ago when I decided to make a career as a behavior designer. If you’re interested in doing behavioral work, I hope this will eliminate much of the guess work in your path to a career in the field. There is certainly much more to know and explore, so I wouldn’t consider my advice definitive, but this is what I’ve found to be the most useful. I’ll detail that path in two main sections:
- Core competencies:
- Cognitive and Social Psychology
- Research and Experimental Methods
- Career paths:
- User Experience
- Your current job
I’ve found multiple paths to working as a behavior designer. It’s important to understand, however, that most of these paths won’t necessarily lead you to a job with the title, “Behavior Designer.” The field is still too new and the private sector hasn’t established the role just yet. However, these paths lead to doing important work, changing lives by changing people’s daily behavior.
No matter which of these roles you choose, you’ll need some common core competencies between them. Behavioral design is an interdisciplinary field, so you’ll need grounding in a few different areas.
Want to learn more about how to keep users coming back? I’ve teamed up with a panel of experts and created course on “Product Psychology” that covers everything from behavioral design to user persuasion.
The Core Competencies
Cognitive and Social Psychology
It should go without saying, but you need to understand cognitive and social psychology to do this work. In particular, you should understand the emerging view among behavioral scientists on how the mind makes decisions. To paraphrase, it goes something like this: we’re not perfectly rational, calculating beings all of the time. Instead, we have limited cognitive abilities and our minds use shortcuts (or heuristics) to help stretch our limited mental resources. Because of these limitations, and our shortcuts, our decisions are remarkably susceptible to our environment and social cues. Changing our environment or social cues can radically alter behavior.
You do not necessarily need a formal degree for this, though it’s certainly very valuable. Whether you study it formally or independently, you absolutely need to master the material.
To do this, start with the seminal works in the field. The following were my favorite starting points:
There are many, many more books to read, so I encourage you to find other works. Start with the best sellers for an easier starting point and work your way to the more academic and technical works.
The next step is to go beyond the books. Read the academic papers they cite. Follow the leaders in the field and consume the new papers, articles, and books they share or publish. Attend great behavioral design events like Nir Eyal’s annual Habit Summit. Join organizations like the Behavioral Science & Policy Association, the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, and Action Design to stay up to date on the latest research and content. By reading the defining papers and books of behavioral economics, you’ll have the knowledge base you can build upon.
If you are interested in this work and have yet to start digging into the literature on your own or know you are not self-directed enough to master this material without structure, then take a formal study program. You can find a comprehensive list of programs graduate programs here from BehavioralEconomics.com.
Research and Experimental Methods
You probably already knew you would need to know psychology to be a behavior designer. What most people do not realize is that the concepts are secondary to the method. I know I didn’t in the beginning. What is that method? Research and experimentation.
The fundamental skill set of a behavior designer is research. Whenever possible, this means experiment design and execution. Much of what we know in this field is the result of research from randomized controlled trials (RCT) or other methods like observational studies, surveys, and regression analyses. When you read any of the hallmark books, you’ll find the concepts presented are backed by RCTs or other forms of research from academia (and, increasingly, the private sector). The scientific method is the key to separating what’s real and what isn’t.
Why is this so important? The mind is a fickle thing and the smallest changes in population, environment, and the like affect how it operates. Because of that, you can’t just take something from a book, apply it to whatever you are doing, and assume it will work. The actions people take vary wildly in different contexts and populations, so many great behavioral ideas don’t end up working. You can try using the widely-held concepts of classic behavioral economics, but you have put them to the test in your own world. You must validate them with experiments. This is the true work of a behavior designer.
The most powerful method is the randomized controlled trial, the gold standard of research. In an RCT, you’ll take something, make another version of it with a change you think may affect the outcome, randomly select participants into which version they receive to remove bias, and measure the results. Maybe that sounds like a lot, but technology has made it relatively easy to do this. Point and click web tools like Optimizely and Visual Website Optimizer or email software like MailChimp or Aweber automate the process. While the execution has become easier and made A/B testing common, realizing the true benefits of experiments requires basic understanding of statistical significance, effect sizes, sampling, power calculations, and the like. Without that knowledge base, it’s difficult to obtain meaningful insights and results from testing.
To start learning, I recommend Uncontrolled: The Surprising Payoff of Trial-and-Error for Business, Politics, and Society. For a much deeper dive from the academic side, try Field Experiments: Design, Analysis, and Interpretation. You’ll also need to know the fundamentals of statistics, so I recommend Naked Statistics for beginners. Online education platforms like Coursera and Khan Academy also offer many options for learning these subjects. Many university research labs need volunteers, as well, so look into those opportunities if you have the opportunity.
To design and analyze the results of all those experiments, you’ll need to work with a lot of data. Thus, being proficient in data skills is also necessary.
You’ll need to learn a data programming language to do this. R, STATA, SAS, and Python are the most common. Which one will depend on the career path you choose for being a behavior designer, as detailed in the next section. I generally recommend R, but you’ll have to see what your industry uses most often.
Once you’ve chosen a language to learn, you’ll find plenty of options for education. There are free programs like Swirl, free academic courses on the aforementioned online education sites like Coursera and Khan Academy, paid workshops and boot camps, and even graduate programs. The key data tasks will be gathering, linking, and cleaning data and running regressions and experimental analyses, so focus on that subject matter. Start small and let your work and interests dictate how far you go. You’ll learn best on the job doing real data projects.
Behavioral design is increasingly a technology discipline. You don’t need to be a full-time coder, but some programming skills and technical savvy will be necessary in most roles.
As mentioned in the previous section, it’s important to know at least basic data programming for research. Proficiency in testing tools is also important and can be learned quickly. Analytics software like Google Analytics and Adobe Analytics allow you to collect the data you’ll need, too.
Other technology skills will depend on the path you take, but some basic programming will be valuable in most opportunities. Most behavioralists would find value from some skill in coding for front-end websites (examples: CSS, HTML, and Java), mobile apps (examples: Objective C (iOS) and Java (Android)), and desktop apps (examples: Visual Basic 6, .NET and Java). Python is emerging as a common language for both applications and data analysis, as well.
The key is to develop hard skills for whatever field you pursue so you can provide more value in your role, communicate effectively with technology teams, and not always rely on others for technical work. After reviewing the paths below, get input from those already in the field to know what skills are necessary.
If you’re looking for even more research on this topic, then I invite you to download our 18-lesson PDF course on Product Psychology:
As mentioned above, being a behavior designer doesn’t usually mean you have a job title that says so. Most opportunities require somewhat of a Trojan Horse technique. There aren’t many true opportunities designated as purely behavioral work (and the ones that do exist are hyper competitive), but the work in the fields and positions listed below directly involves measuring, predicting, and motivating human behavior.
Below are five common career paths to being a behavioral designer (plus a bonus suggestion).
This is the traditional route and still where you find most of the leaders in the field. To build your career here, you’ll climb the academic ladder, studying your way through Masters and PhD programs in the social or behavioral sciences, and eventually teach and conduct research at a university. Sometimes this will be supplemented with work writing books and consulting. Behavioral employment opportunities will be in cognitive or social psychology and MBA programs (often focused on marketing).
To be clear, I’m specifically referring to being employed in academia. Simply studying the relevant fields and pursuing their advanced degrees can also lead to jobs in the fields specified below.
Do this is if you like writing, especially the academic and technical variety, and prefer focused learning and research in one area.
In this field, you can incorporate behavioral methods as you design products that engage people and drive them to take action. Think about how many different products you engage with in a given day. The apps on your phone, your phone itself, your computer, your email client, your car, your Fitbit…the list is endless. Every one of those products motivates our behavior in some way and its usage is dependent on how our brain interprets the value and ease of its use.
UXers with a behavioral background know the psychology of how people interact and engage with products. They can use that to build upon the particular skills of the UX field. Qualitative research techniques are key to understanding the needs of users and gaining valuable feedback. Design concepts are critical, including product, interaction, and interface design. Understanding information architecture and programming (especially front end) can be quite valuable.
Do this if you enjoy the intersection of creative work and problem solving, desire to actually create tangible products people can use, and are comfortable doing technical work.
Good marketers have always been well attuned to psychology and data driven practices. Well before the explosion of interest in behavioral design, advertisers and direct response copywriters were iterating their way to finding what drives people to take action or change their perception through tests of direct mail ads and consumer research. In the new digital marketing world, it’s more important than ever to understand how to cut through the noise and engage people with good messaging.
Behavioral designers in the marketing realm are keen to understand what drives people to be engaged with communications and take action. They know how to conduct good consumer research. They know how to parse big data sets and find patterns and correlations of consumer behavior. They know how to leverage what they’ve learned and researched to optimize every piece of a marketing funnel strategically using experiments.
Start with marketing classes, especially those taught within MBA programs, so you can understand the basics of marketing and consumer behavior. Then, learn the tools you’ll need to run and analyze marketing campaigns like point and click A/B testing tools, analytics software, and programming languages for data analysis and front end coding. With these skills under your belt, you’ll be ready to start doing the work, either in firms like Ogilvy that have directly embraced the role of behavioral design in effective marketing, or by expanding the value of traditional marketing positions.
Do this if you’re fascinated with communications and technical enough to be adept with software.
Several behaviorally focused consulting firms exist and directly apply this work for clients. While this type of organization is not prolific, and thus has limited opportunities for jobs, they offer some of the most direct application in the field and provide innovative opportunities.
The behavioral consulting industry includes:
The skills necessary to work at such organizations are dependent on the specific roles in a project, so they may encompass many of the ones described in other roles here. Any firm will require the skill sets of a consultant, including project management, communication, and client relationship management.
Do this if you enjoy variety in your work, a fast paced culture, and managing relationships with different stakeholders.
The public sector is putting behavioral design to work. The UK’s Behavioural Insights Team (aka, the Nudge Unit) paved the way years ago and now similar teams exist in the US, India, Australia, and other countries. Some of the work in this space is done by the consulting firms listed above, too.
The core behavioral skill sets are important here and the particular role in a team will have different requirements. There is overlap with consulting, as well, as such teams work on many different projects.
Do this if you like the consulting type of environment but are passionate about government service and making an impact at that level.
Your current job
While the careers paths listed above offer the best opportunities for extensive application of behavioral methods, I want to stress that anyone can get started. The great thing about behavioral design is that it’s relevant in anything that involves humans, so there’s no reason not to begin in whatever you’re doing now. You don’t have to run experiments to do some form of behavioral work. Read the pop-sci books (Predictably Irrational, Hooked, Influence, Blink, Switch, Drive, etc.) and start applying what you learn to your day job and life. Whether using independent assessments to run meetings, modifying how you write your emails, or adjusting your desk space for a more productive environment, there are plenty of ways to apply behavioral design without going deep into the weeds. You may even create a new field of application while doing it.
If you’re looking for even more research on this topic, then I invite you to download our 18-lesson PDF course on Product Psychology:
The path forward
The paths to being a behavioral designer may seem obtuse, but choosing the destination that best matches your interests and strengths and building the skills you need to get there provides some clarity.
If you’re unsure of which route to take, try more than one. Talk with people who work in different areas. The field is still small and behavioral designers are generally very accessible. Take online courses and do projects with real organizations. A central part of this dynamic field is continuous learning, so embrace it.
The last 6 years have been an exciting journey to find my place in this field. The more I learn about behavioral design and meet new people applying it, the more excited I become for the next 6 years and beyond. We’ve only scratched the surface of applying these principles to change the world and have a long way to go to reach the field’s promise. To achieve that, I hope more people will explore doing this important work.
Top Consumer Psychology Articles
- Will Clubhouse be a Habit or Has-Been?
- The One Fitness App That Hooked Me For Good
- Here’s How Fortnite ‘Hooked’ Millions
- How Apps Can Shape Your Future Self
- How Netflix’s Customer Obsession Created a Customer Obsession
- Want to Design User Behavior? Pass the ‘Regret Test’ First
- How to Trigger Product Usage that Sticks
- How to Get People to Help Each Other, Online and Off
- Here’s How Amazon’s Alexa Hooks You
- How to Use Psychology to Make Persuasive Video
- How to Use Personality Science to Drive Online Conversions
- The Unbelievable Future of Habit-Forming Technology
- The Secret Marketing Power of Evolutionary Psychology
- Don’t Ask People What They Want, Watch What They Do
- How Cognitive Biases Can Help (and Hurt) Your Business
- What Most People Don’t Know About Behavioral Design
- How to Start a Career in Behavioral Design
- Your World is Full of Placebo Buttons (and That’s a Good Thing)
- How to Build Technology that Feels Like a Friend
- 3 Pillars of the Most Successful Tech Products
- Here’s How to Ethically Manipulate Other People
- How Two Companies Hooked Customers On Products They Rarely Use
- How to Hook Users in 3 Steps: An Intro to Habit Testing
- Die Dashboards, Die! Why Conversations Will Reinvent Software
- The Secret to Sending Emails and Notifications That Work
- How to Win Your Competition’s Customers
- Hooked for Good: How Habit-Forming Products Improve Lives
- Good Products Start With Good Questions
- Human + A.I. = Your Digital Future
- Why ‘Assistant-As-App’ Might Be the Next Big Tech Trend
- People Don’t Want Something Truly New, They Want the Familiar Done Differently.
- 4 Ways to Win Your Competitor’s Customer Habits (Slides)
- Here’s Why You’ll Hate the Apple Watch (and the Important Business Lesson You Need to Know)
- The Secret Psychology of Snapchat
- The Psychology of Notifications: How to Send Triggers that Work
- How Technology Tricks You Into Tipping More
- The Limits of Loyalty: When Habits Change, You’re Toast
- 4 Ways to Use Psychology to Win Your Competition’s Customers
- The Real Reason “Stupid” Startups Raise So Much Money
- The Psychology Behind Why We Can’t Stop Messaging
- The Psychology of a Billion-Dollar Enterprise App: Why is Slack so Habit-Forming?
- Framing Reward is as Important as Reward Itself
- A Free Course on User Behavior
- It’s Not All Fun And Games: The Pros and Cons of Gamification at Work
- Getting Traction: How to Hook New Users
- Designing for Behavior Change Book Review
- The Sneaky Trick Behind the Explosive Growth of the Kardashian Game
- How Successful Companies Design for Users’ Multi-Device Lives
- The Link Between Habits and User Satisfaction
- What Triggers The Best Word of Mouth Marketing?
- What Tech Companies Can Learn from Rehab
- The Secrets of Addictive Online Auctions
- Teach or Hook? What’s the Real Goal of Online Education?
- Using Mind Control to Raise Startup Cash
- How To Build Habits In A Multi-Device World
- How To Cope with Your Insane Jealousy Of The WhatsApp Deal
- Why Do Fads Fade? The Inevitable Death Of Flappy Bird
- You’d Be Surprised By What Really Motivates Users
- Nostalgia: A Product Designer’s Secret Weapon
- How You Can Help Users Change Habits
- Is “Lean Startup” Right for Your Idea?
- Hunting for Habits: Keying in on smart design to make a product irresistible
- Are Companies Too Obsessed With Growth? How to Measure Habits
- Refresh: The App a Secret Agent Would Love
- Angel or Devil: Who’s Really Investing In Your Start-Up?
- In 10 Years, We Won’t Use Personal Technology
- 4 Simple Things I Did to Control My Bad Tech Habits
- “Yes, And”: The Two Words that Created a #1 App
- From Laid to Paid: How Tinder Set Fire to Online Dating
- What if In-App Purchases Came to Real Life?
- Hooking Users One Snapchat at a Time
- How To Save Your Startup From The “Spotlight Effect”
- Bible App: Getting 100 Million Downloads is More Psychology Than Miracles
- How to Boost Desire Using the Psychology of Scarcity
- Marketplaces & The Curse of the Network Effect
- Today’s Behaviors, Tomorrow’s Startups
- Venture Capital and The Superstitious Investor
- The Future is Driven by Interface Changes
- Why Business is Addicted to Habits
- Viral Loops Or Viral ‘Oops’?
- Making a Marketplace
- What Killed Turntable.fm?
- What You Don’t Know About Human Intuition Can Hurt You
- Designing to Reward our Tribal Sides
- New Video – “Hooked: Building Habit-Forming Products”
- How Technology is Like Bug Sex
- Ways To Get People To Do Things They Don’t Want To Do
- The Network Effect Isn’t Good Enough
- Mass Persuasion, One User At A Time
- How Investment Drives Engagement (Slides)
- Getting Your Product Into the Habit Zone
- Where Have The Users Gone?
- Infinite Scroll: The Web’s Slot Machine
- Designing User Habits Video
- Psychology of Sports: How Sports Infect Your Brain
- This is Your Brain On Boarding: How to Turn Visitors Into Users
- User Investment: Make Your Users Do the Work
- Behavior by Design Video
- When Designing for Good Is Bad
- Stop Building Apps, Start Building User Behaviors
- The Next Secrets of the Internet
- User Growth and Engagement: A Hacker Metric
- Spotting the Next Facebook: Why Emotions are Big Business
- The Billion Dollar Mind Trick: An Intro to Triggers
- Why Everyone Hates I.T. People
- Hooking Users In 3 Steps: An Intro to Habit Testing
- Abolish The Reference Check
- Variable Rewards: Want To Hook Users? Drive Them Crazy
- How to Design Behavior (The Behavior Change Matrix)
- How To Design For “Normals”
- The Hook Model: How to Manufacture Desire
- User Habits: Why Startups Must Be Behavior Experts
- What Is, and Is Not, Your Product’s Job
- Pinterest’s Obvious Secret
- Personalized eCommerce Is Already Here, You Just Don’t Recognize It
- Where is the Web Going?
- The Developer Divide: When Great Companies Can’t Hire
- Being a Quitter Makes You a Good Entrepreneur
- Behavior by Design
- Why You Should Run Your Business Barefoot
- Are you a Startup Star, Wacko, or Wannabe?